Biologische Psychologie 1 (Silani)

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Vorlesung an der Universität Wien

Allgemeines

Vorlesungsverzeichnis

Psychoforum

Prüfungsstoff: Folien und Buch: Neuroscience - exploring the brain Kapitel 1-14


Vortragende: Giorgia Silani, Ph.D.

Practice Exam Questions


Studienpläne (Universität Wien):

Begleitende Lernunterlagen

Neuroscience: Past, present and future

The origins of neuroscience

Trepanation

Canopic Jars

Hippokrates of Kos

Aristotle

Galen of Pergamon: Correlation between structure and function, Cerebrum: soft = sensations, Cerebellum: hard = movements, Ventricles: contains fluids which movements to or from regulate perception and actions

René Descartes: Fluid-mechanical theory of brain function, Philosophical mind-brain distinction

Sir Charles Bell

François Magendie

Franz Joseph Gall: 1809 Phrenology

Marie Jean Pierre Flourens: 1823 Experimental ablation method

Pierre Paul Broca: 1861 Lesioned patients

History of the brain


Levels of analysis in neuroscience

Molecular Neuroscience neurotransmitter, enzymes, etc.

Cellular Neuroscience types of neurons and their properties

Systems Neuroscience visual, auditory, etc.

Behavioral Neuroscience from networks to behaviors

Cognitive Neuroscience from brain to mind, i.e. consciousness


Medical specialists associated with the nervous system

Neurologist: An M.D. trained to diagnose and treat diseases of the nervous system

Psychiatrist: An M.D. trained to diagnose and treat disorders of mood and personality

Neurosurgeon: An M.D. trained to perform surgery on the brain and spinal cord

Neuropathologist: An M.D. or Ph.D. trained to recognize the changes in nervous tissue that result from disease


Types of experimental neuroscientists

Computational neuroscientist: Uses mathematics and computers to construct models of brain functions

Developmental neurobiologist: Analyzes the development and maturation of the brain

Molecular neurobiologist: Uses the genetic material of neurons to understand the structure and function of brain molecules

Neuroanatomist: Studies the structure of the nervous system

Neurochemist: Studies the chemistry of the nervous system

Neuroethologist: Studies the neural basis of species-specific animal behaviors in natural settings

Neuropharmacologist: Examines the effects of drugs on the nervous system

Neurophysiologist: Measures the electrical activity of the nervous system

Physiological psychologist (Biological psychologist, Psychobiologist): Studies the biological basis of behavior

Psychophysicist: Quantitatively measures perceptual abilites


Some major disorders of the nervous system

Alzheimer's disease: A progressive degenerative disease of the brain, characterized by dementia and always fatal

Cerebral palsy (Video): A motor disorder caused by damage to the cerebrum at the time of birth

Depression: A serious disorder of mood, characterized by insomnia, loss of appetite, and feelings of dejection

Epilepsy: A condition characterized by periodic disturbances of brain electrical activity that can lead to seizures, loss of consciousness, and sensory distrurbances

Multiple sclerosis (Video): A progressive disease that affects nerve conduction, characterized by episodes of weakness, lack of coordination, and speech disturbance

Parkinson's disease: A progressive disease of the brain that leads to difficulty in initiating voluntary movement

Schizophrenia: A severe psychotic illness characterized by delusions, hallucinations, and bizarre behavior

Spinal paralysis: A loss of feeling and movement caused by traumatic damage to the spinal cord

Stroke: A loss of brain function caused by disruption of the blood supply, usually leading to permanent sensory, motor, or cognitive deficit

Neurons and glia

Nucleus

Grundlagen der Genetik (1/3)

Grundlagen der Genetik (2/3)

Grundlagen der Genetik (3/3)

Protein Synthesis: Translation Process

DNA Transcription and Protein Assembly

Transcription and Translation

Endoplasmic Reticulum

Golgi Apparatus

Mitochondria ATP synthesis

Cytoplasm and Cytoskeleton

The Schwann Cell and Action Potential

Es war einmal das Leben - Die Nerven 1/3

Es war einmal das Leben - Die Nerven 2/3

Es war einmal das Leben - Die Nerven 3/3

The neural membrane at rest

The plasma membrane

Electricity
Measurement Symbol Name Explanation
Electrical current I Ampere represents ion movement
Electrical conductance g Siemens ability (or inability) of an electrical charge

to migrate from one point to another

R Ω
Electrical potential V Volts difference in charge between cathode and anode


The Resting Membrane Potential (Membrane rest potential bei Silani -65 mV!)

Sodium-potassium pump 1

Sodium-potassium pump 2

Sodium-potassium pump 3

Ions
Name Symbol Eion (at 37°C)
Calcium Ca2+ 123mV
Sodium Na+ 62mV
Chloride Cl- -65mV
Potassium K+ -80mV

The action potential

Das Aktionspotential

The Human Body: Nervous System (2nd Ed., Rev.)

Early Hypotheses to Explain the Action Potential

The Action Potential (Animation)

Action Potentials

Propagation of the action potential

Synaptic transmission

Cell Membrane, Exocitosis & Endocitosis

GN 015 Synaptischer Spalt / synaptic cleft - neurotransmitter

cAMP as a second messenger

Neurotransmitter systems

Immunocytochemistry

In Situ Hybridization

Function of Neurotransmitters

Neurotransmitter Synapse 3D Animation

Synaptic vesicle fusion and neurotransmitter release at the neuromuscular junction

Neuron Synapse

Comparison of direct and indirect neurotransmitter actions


The neuropharmacology of some receptor subtypes
Neurotransmitter Receptor subtype Agonist (+) Antagonist (-)
Acetylcholine (ACh) Nicotinic receptor Nicotine Curare
Muscarinic receptor Muscarine Atropine
Norepinephrine (NE) α receptor Phenylephrine Phenoxybenzamine
β receptor Isoproterenol Propranolol
Glutamate (Glu) AMPA AMPA CNQX
NMDA NMDA AP5
GABA GABAA Muscimol Bicuculline
GABAB Baclofen Phaclofen
ATP P2X ATP Suramin
A type Adenosine Caffeine


GABA

GABA Receptor Subunits and Ion Channel

Dopamine

How to Increase Serotonin With Foods & Vitamins

Serotonin disorder

How SSRIs and MAO Inhibitors Work

The central nervous system

Anatomical terms of location (Directional terms)

Brain Anatomy and Functions

CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) Flow

circulation cerb fluid

Insula

Vermis

Ventricular system

Corpus callosum

Cerebral arteries (Neuroanatomy Tutorial)

Brain Stem Model - Lateral View - Cranial Nerves

Cranial Nerves Part 1

Cranial Nerves Part 2

The chemical senses

Taste buds on the tongue

The basic tastes
Type Chemical ingredient Chemical detection Peak sensitivity on tounge
sour acids low pH, H+ binds to and blocks ion channels causing deporalization sides
bitter K+, Mg2+, quinine, caffeine G-protein coupled: T2Rs back
sweet sugars (fructose, sucrose)

artificial sweeteners (saccharin, aspartame)

G-protein coupled: T1R2 and T1R3 receptor tip
umami amino acids G-protein coupled: T1R1 and T1R3 receptor -
salty salts special Na+ channels

the ions pass directly through the channel causing deporalization

sides


The Sense of Taste

Smell

Ageusia: loss of taste

Anosmia: loss of smell

The eye and the central visual system

Human Eye: 01: General Anatomy

Human Eye: 02: Retina

Human Eye: 03: Rod Cell

Refractive errors
Type Focal point Lens type for correction
Emmetropia optimal -
Myopia too short concav (spreads light)
Hyperopia too long convex (bundles light)


Photoisomerization of rhodopsin

Center-surround receptive field

Lateral Geniculate Nucleus - Off Cell

The Vision System

The Human Visual Pathways: Maps, Plasticity, and Reading

Es war einmal das Leben - Das Auge 1/3

Es war einmal das Leben - Das Auge 2/3

Es war einmal das Leben - Das Auge 1/3

The auditory and vestibular systems

Auditory Transduction

Hair cell transduction channels

Basilar Membrane oscillations at different sound frequencies

Es war einmal das Leben - Das Ohr 1/3

Es war einmal das Leben - Das Ohr 2/3

Es war einmal das Leben - Das Ohr 3/3

The somato-sensory system

Nerves and Pain Sensors

Central Nervous System, Reflex Arc

Posterior parietal cortex (PPC): involved in somatic sensation, visual stimuli, and movement planning; lesion has been associated to: agnosia, astereoagnosia and neglect syndrome

Hyperalgesia: higher sensitivity to pain in damaged tissue

The motor system

Hypertrophy: Exaggerated growth of muscle fibers

Atrophy: Degeneration of muscle fibers

Muscle Contraction 1

Muscle Contraction 2

The mechanism of filament sliding during contraction of a myofibril

Muscular System, Sliding Filament Theory (1)

Muscular System, Sliding Filament Theory (2)

Neuromuscular junction - motor unit

Hierarchy of motor controls
Level Task Associated brain regions
highest Strategy: the goal of the movement and best way to achieve it neocortex and basal ganglia
middle Tactics: the sequence of muscle contraction to achieve the goal motor cortex and cerebellum
lowest Execution: activation of motor neurons that generate the movement brain stem and spinal cord


Neuroanatomy Tutorial 34 (Motor Pathway)

Cortico-spinal tracts

The Corticospinal Tract

The Basal Ganglia

Basal Ganglia part 1: Anatomy and Function

Michael J Fox Parkinson's Disease

CBS Special on Huntington's Disease

Hemiballismus: violent, flinging movement on one side of the body

Ataxia: lesion of the cerebellum, uncoordinated and inaccurate movements

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